Submitted: 07 Jul 2019
Accepted: 15 Oct 2019
First published online: 20 Nov 2019
EndNote EndNote

(Enw Format - Win & Mac)

BibTeX BibTeX

(Bib Format - Win & Mac)

Bookends Bookends

(Ris Format - Mac only)

EasyBib EasyBib

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Medlars Medlars

(Txt Format - Win & Mac)

Mendeley Web Mendeley Web
Mendeley Mendeley

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Papers Papers

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

ProCite ProCite

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Reference Manager Reference Manager

(Ris Format - Win only)

Refworks Refworks

(Refworks Format - Win & Mac)

Zotero Zotero

(Ris Format - FireFox Plugin)

J Prev Epidemiol. 2019;4(2):e10-e10.
  Abstract View: 28
  PDF Download: 31


Relationship of serum lead level in patients consuming oral opium with abdominal pain

Zeinab Neghabi 1 * ORCiD, Hassan Amiri 2, Abbas Aghabiklooei 3, Hanyeh Saburi Shekofte 4

1 Emergency Physician, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Emergency Medicine Management Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Medical Toxicologist, Iran University of Medical Sciences
4 Forensic Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence to: Zeinab Neghabi, Email: Email:


Introduction: Drug abuse and its complications are the health-social problems in Middle East countries like Iran. Smugglers may add lead to the drugs when it is produced, to increase its weight.

Objectives: The main purpose of current study is to investigate the relationship of serum lead level with abdominal pain in the patients consuming oral opium.

Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 122 patients consuming oral opium presented with abdominal pain referring to three university hospitals (2016) were investigated. Serum lead levels were measured in all of the subjects. Using the checklist, the patients’ information including demographic data and other information were collected.

Results: Average age of patients was 13 ± 49.25 years (98 percent were males). The average serum lead level in oral opium users with abdominal pain complaint was 87.49 ± 32.27 mg/dL. In our patients, 3.3% had mild toxicity (25 to 45 mg/dL), and 29.5% of individuals were at moderate toxicity level (45-69 mg/dL). Accordingly, 39.3% of patients had severe lead toxicity (70-100 mg/dL). Moreover, in 27.9% of subjects, the lead level was over 100 mg/dL, which was at the severe poisoning level. The most common symptom with abdominal pain was constipation in 72% and anorexia in 53% of individuals.

Conclusion: Our results indicated the high level of serum lead in addicts of oral opium in our study population. Thus, screening the serum lead level in drug addicts is useful for preventing opium complications.

Citation: Neghabi Z, Amiri H, Aghabiklooei A, Saburi Shekofte H. Relationship of serum lead level in patients consuming oral opium with abdominal pain. J Prev Epidemiol. 2019;4(2):e10. 
First name
Last name
Email address
Security code