Submitted: 07 Aug 2020
Accepted: 03 Oct 2020
ePublished: 26 Oct 2020
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J Prev Epidemiol. 2020;5(1): e10.
doi: 10.34172/jpe.2020.10
  Abstract View: 66
  PDF Download: 20

Epidemiology and Prevention

Early screening of chronic kidney disease patients among the asymptomatic adult population in Bangladesh

Zebunnesa Zeba 1 * , Kaniz Fatema 2, Ahmed Faisal Sumit 3, Rahelee Zinnat 4, Liaquat Ali 5

1 Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh
2 Centre for Health Equity Training Research & Evaluation (CHETRE), UNSW, Sydney, Australia
3 Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, , Dhaka, Bangladesh
4 Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh
5 Pothikrit Centre for Health Studies (PCHS), Sangckriti Bikash Bhaban 1/E/1 Paribag, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Correspondence to: Zebunnesa Zeba, Email:; zeba5533@gmail.com zebunnesa.zeba@juniv. edu

Abstract

Introduction: Early identification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides valuable opportunities for effective interventions that reduce the risk of outcomes, particularly renal failure.

Objectives: This study aimed to screen the Bangladeshi asymptomatic adult population for CKD to identify potential risk factors for its development.

Patients and Methods: The screening program was carried out among the 400 subjects in the Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh to identify people with the risk of CKD. All the subjects were asymptomatic and previously been never diagnosed with kidney diseases. Demographic data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Urinary protein was tested by dipstick method, and serum creatinine was measured by an auto-analyzer. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by using standard formula. CKD was diagnosed and classified according to the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines.

Results: A total of 18.2% respondents were found to have likely CKD to whom 82% were in stage 1 and 18% were in stage 2. The majority of the likely CKD respondents (30.1%) were in age >60 years. The prevalence of proteinuria was significantly (P=0.0001) higher among previously documented CKD patients compared to the control group. Logistic analysis revealed that after adjustments, CKD showed a significant association with diabetes mellitus (ORs: 7.46, P=0.00), smoking (ORs: 2.36, P=0.02), obesity (ORs: 3.98, P=0.00) and hypertension (ORs: 1.16, P=0.66) compared to control.

Conclusion: A substantial number of adults were found to be unaware of the existence of CKD hence, large-scale prevention programs should be undertaken to reduce the classical risk factors of these disorders.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, early detection, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, End-stage renal diseases, Estimated glomerular filtration rate
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