Introduction: In Nigeria, chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence in children ranges between 2-6 cases per annum. Management of CKD which includes dialysis and renal transplant (renal replacement therapy) is not easily obtainable and affordable in our environment. Identifying patients with increased risk and prompt treatment aimed at risk reduction, slow down the progression. Consequently, screening for early detection therefore becomes inevitable, even individuals who appear normal should be screened for modifiable CKD risk factors such as proteinuria, hypertension and obesity.
Objectives: To screen for risk factors for CKD in children attending paediatric outpatient clinic in Federal Medical Center Asaba.
Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which all the children 3-16 years, attending the children outpatient clinic, and have satisfied the inclusion criteria were screened for proteinuria, hypertension and obesity, in the month of June 2014.
Results: A total of 298 children: 153 (51.3%) males and 145 (48.7%) were screened. Children (3-9 years) comprise 74.2% (221/298) while adolescents (10-16 years) were 25.8% (77/298), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The median age of the children was 6 years and a range of 3-16 years. Risk factors for CKD (proteinuria, hypertension and obesity) were detected in 15.8% (47/298) children. The respective proportion of those with proteinuria, hypertension and obesity was 3.0% (9/298), 3.7% (11/298), 10.1% (30/298) and the presence of the risk factors for CKD has no age or gender predilection.
Conclusion: Risk factors for CKD exist in asymptomatic children, obesity being the most common.